Posts tagged Corporate Earnings
The world of finance has its own particular lexicon, handed down from generation to generation of Wall Street and City folk. “Dead cat bounce” is one of the more colorful, if dolorous, examples of the patois of equity traders. It refers to a relief rally after a sharp pullback that fails to propel itself far enough to reclaim the high ground set by the last bull market peak. In the case of the pullback that began last October, we have already seen three unfortunate kitties bounce lamely off intermittent selling pauses. The chart below illustrates the topography of this pullback (which, as you will recall, stretched to a magnitude of minus 19.8 percent at its Christmas Eve trough).
The Wall of Round Numbers
As we write this commentary on Friday morning the S&P 500 is dithering somewhat around the price level of 2,600. That’s not surprising in that 2,600 is exactly 100 points above 2,500, which is the last place the index wavered for a few days before resuming its upward ascent. As we have said many times, there is nothing magical about these round numbers…except that the trading patterns of the computer models that dominate every day’s volume of trades confer importance on them. Given where general short-term sentiment appears to be – genuine relief that the pullback in December stopped short of a bear market, some soothing words from the Fed, and optics (if not a whole lot more) from US-China talks on easing trade tensions – we would be not at all surprised to see that 2,600 threshold breached in the coming days if not today. To prove that this Schrödinger’s cat is of the live variety, though, there are 200 more points to get back to those intermittent relief rally highs, and another 100 of climbing after that to reach the Hillary Step within sight of that 9/20 Everest peak. That could involve many days and multiple returns to lower base camps before a new bull confirmation can be presumed with confidence.
Back In the Real World…
While those whimsical round numbers do matter in the context of short-term market moves, the only determinant of long-term value for any common stock is that company’s financial condition, specifically the magnitude and timing of its future cash flows. Here we may have reason to be somewhat optimistic in the weeks ahead. Earnings season gets underway next week, and attention will focus not only on how well companies performed in the fourth quarter relative to expectations, but also how they guide performance for the twelve months ahead. From a valuation standpoint, there is good news to be had from paying attention to these metrics. The chart below shows both the price-to-sales (P/S) and price-to-earnings (P/E) ratios for the S&P 500 for the last five years. Both ratios are expressed on a next twelve months (NTM) basis, meaning the consensus forecast for the year ahead at each point on the graph.
Thanks to a combination of strong sales and earnings growth in 2018 and the magnitude of the stock market pullback, valuation levels currently look quite attractive relative to the past five years. The price-to-sales ratio (green graph) is right around its five year average. The P/E ratio (blue graph) is well below its five year average of 16.5 times, but that is somewhat misleading. Earnings here are after-tax, so they reflect the massive windfall to corporate bottom lines created by the tax cuts of December 2017. That windfall will fade now that one year has passed since the tax cuts were enacted, and earnings growth will moderate accordingly. Whatever way you look at it, however, current stock price valuations are not excessively dear. The current outlook for Q1 2019 sales growth is around 5.6 percent according to market research firm FactSet, and earnings are projected to register a bit more than 10 percent growth. If that kind of cadence can be sustained through Q2 and beyond, it should provide at least something of a tailwind to stocks.
The Unknowns Abide
Of course there is no certainty that sales and earnings will continue their robust growth clip, as that will depend in turn on evolving global demand trends, ten years into an economic growth cycle. As we noted last week, IMF forecasts for growth in 2019 have moderated, with potential trouble spots including China and the EU. Regardless of whatever happy talk comes out of the current round of trade talks there are plenty of unresolved issues there. And plenty of other X-factors lurk in the soup of any given day’s data feed. We continue to believe that market trends this year will be challenged by higher than usual levels of volatility. All that being said, though, continued strength in corporate sales and earnings will matter a great deal, starting with the first batch of releases next week.
Should you be concerned about the somewhat bumpy ride US stocks have encountered in the past couple days? Or is this a welcome chance to get in some long overdue bargain hunting before the S&P 500 resumes its lazy upward drift to a series of new highs?
The answer would depend, we imagine, on whether you see the unrest on the Korean peninsula – arguably the best go-to explanation for yesterday’s 1.45 percent pullback in the US benchmark index – as something genuinely serious and potentially destabilizing, or as little more than a spate of made-for-Twitter taunts that will, as these things generally do, settle down. As you contemplate this, bear in mind that most of the intense geopolitical flashpoints in history (notably including the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis) have had relatively negligible impacts on asset returns in the months following the event. We have noted before that disaster doesn’t strike far more often than it does strike.
Caveat Bargain Hunter
That being said – and our instinctive proclivity towards bargain-hunting notwithstanding – there are some reasons entirely unrelated to geopolitics that merit some thought before doubling down on your equity market exposure. This comes back to a theme we have discussed extensively with clients in recent weeks, namely, the rather listless, leaderless nature of the market’s upward drift this summer. Consider the chart below, which shows the relative performance of the main S&P 500 industry sectors against the benchmark index for the year to date.
In this chart we draw particular attention to three sectors: technology, financials and energy. These are the three sectors that were the key drivers of profit growth in the just-concluded second quarter earnings season. Energy led the way with a triple-digit earnings rebound from the depths of the sector’s miserable 2016. Technology and financials both enjoyed double-digit earnings growth and the tech sector’s top line was strong as well, helped along by the benign tailwind of a weaker dollar against major trading partners.
With the exception of tech, though, these earnings haven’t translated into share price performance. Energy continues to be the market’s problem child, seemingly unable to convince investors that the current trough recovery in earnings is sustainable. Financials, of course, were the darling of the post-election reflation trade before that ill-conceived flight of fancy crashed and burned in this year’s first quarter. Banks and their ilk have trailed the benchmark since then. And tech, even though it maintains a solid performance lead this year, has shown itself to be vulnerable on several occasions, most notably with that big pullback in early June.
The apparent lack of attention paid to earnings extends to the level of individual stocks as well. A Financial Times article earlier this week reported on the market’s apparent failure to reward companies beating their Q2 earnings estimates, noting that “there has been little or no reward for companies reporting better than expected earnings per share and sales.” This observation fits in squarely with our contention that, while the market drifts higher in the absence of a compelling negative headwind, it lacks a sustaining theme. And without such a sustaining theme the market is, we believe, more vulnerable to the types of external shocks we have seen this week.
Labor Day Looms
As we write this before Friday’s market open, we have no crystal ball to tell us whether yesterday’s pullback will extend for a few more days (S&P 500 futures are about flat with 20 minutes to go before the open). We haven’t seen a multi-day pullback for more than a year and a half, but they do happen with some regularity. We think it more likely than not that the Korea kerfuffle will subside in due time, playground taunts from both heads of state kept in check by cooler heads. But the listless market will still be exposed to these kinds of periodic shocks, and they may come into sharper focus as the traditional back to school season approaches. Yesterday the VIX, the market’s “fear gauge”, shot up above 17 after weeks of historically low dormancy. Until we have another compelling, sustainable positive trend narrative, we should not be surprised to see more of these periodic, brief solar flares.
We are heading into the dog days of summer, and this one has a distinctly retro feel to it. Just a few weeks ago we used this space to comment on the US stock market’s having a distinct 1970s vibe to it. But the big socio-cultural phenomenon of the moment is Pokémon Go, an app which appeared out of nowhere to rival Twitter in popularity. What with Pikachu and friends roaming all over our virtual spaces, the S&P 500 setting new record highs, the prospect of a Clinton White House and even a new reality show for ex-‘N Syncer Lance Bass, we may have to revise our cultural reference markers a couple decades ahead to the late 1990s. Of course, the silly season will eventually give way to the more purposeful back-to-school month of September. This year’s ninth month could be plenty interesting and potentially tricky for investors.
Yellen and the Markets
For a first clue as to what September might have in store, we will be paying close attention to the language Janet Yellen uses to convey her sense of the state of play at the FOMC meeting later this month. The odds of any actual rate action in July are vanishingly small; at this point it would be a huge surprise, and probably not a pleasant one, for the Fed to act. But Chair Yellen and the markets need to have a little conversation. In the aftermath of Brexit, short-lived tempest though it was, market expectations on the timing of the next Fed move pushed out well into 2017. Bond yields remain near historically low levels pretty much everywhere, despite a bit of a jump this week.
But Brexit is oh-so three weeks ago. There is much less uncertainty around Britain’s near-term future as the new Conservative government of Theresa May settles into office and the identity of the key players charged with negotiating the terms of Brexit become known. Meanwhile, a new string of macroeconomic numbers on this side of the Atlantic suggests that markets may be overly optimistic in their never-never expectations on rates. There was last week’s release by the BLS with all kinds of good news about jobs and wages, of course. This week we saw a strong uptick in producer prices, suggesting that the wage-price trend of the past several months is more durable than the Fed might have thought back in the spring. Retail sales and industrial production both outperformed and capacity utilization nudged up slightly. If economic conditions suggest that the Fed’s mandate of stable prices and full employment is best served by bringing rates up, if ever so slightly, can Yellen and her colleagues still make the case for staying put? Or will she use the July meeting to reset expectations towards a September move?
Earnings Finding Bottom?
By September we will also have a good sense as to how Q2 earnings will finish out and whether, as currently expected, the growth trend turns positive again for Q3 and beyond. Even as energy, industrials and materials continue to be a drag on average earnings, consensus estimates call for strong positive reversals in key sectors like consumer discretionary, healthcare and technology. The evidence from recent market trends suggests that investors are, for the moment anyway, putting oil prices and the dollar in the rear-view mirror and focusing on a potential return to double-digit earnings growth by next year.
The TINA Syndrome
Much chatter continues – including in some of our recent commentaries – about the mixed messages being sent by stocks and bonds, with the former seeing the world’s metaphorical glass as half-full and the latter viewing it as half-empty. A derivation of this is the so-called TINA view on US blue-chip equities: There Is No Alternative. This view suggests that bond investors have become the new stock investors. With historically low or negative yields distorting whatever information the bond market is sending, high quality stocks with healthy total shareholder return programs have become the new safe haven, in the world according to TINA.
IF the TINA syndrome persists into the fall, we could be in for one of those Santa Claus rallies so beloved of investors as the year heads to a close. For this to happen, though, will still require a few things to go right; at the very least, a continuation of the more favorable earnings and economic trends discussed above, and a minimum of surprises as this very strange political season draws towards Election Day. And just yesterday, of course, we were sadly reminded once again of the persistent presence of terror with the Bastille Day tragedy in Nice, France.
All of which is to say that conditions continue to be supportive for stocks, but not without plausible downside catalysts. There will be plenty of things to focus on and prepare for as the dog days give way to a potentially busy and challenging fall.
Americans love to shop, and as our shopping habits go, so goes the economy. Such is the conventional wisdom, in any case. Consumer spending has consistently accounted for around 70 percent of our gross domestic product (GDP) for many decades now. Every so often, though, a narrative takes hold to challenge the conventional wisdom. Consumers are “going small” (1970s), or “rejecting excess” (early 1990s, pretty funny in hindsight) or “repairing household finances” (post-2008 recession). There is often a grain of truth in the contrarian narrative. Somehow, though, we just go right on spending. This week we saw both sides of the narrative. A string of Q1 earnings reports in the retail sector cast a pall over the market and sparked renewed speculation about the vanishing consumer. Then, Friday morning delivered up a new batch of data from the Commerce Department showing that overall April retail sales grew by 1.4 percent (month-to-month), the briskest pace in over a year and comfortably ahead of expectations. Is this just one outlier data point, or are rumors of the consumer’s demise greatly exaggerated?
Follow the Wages
We are generally not ones to make a big to-do about one monthly number. As the chart below shows, monthly retail sales have bounced around quite a bit over the past three years, and in recent months the pace has lagged the average for the overall period.
But an improved outlook for consumer spending habits does not strike us as surprising in view of other recent headline data. Last week’s jobs report, while underwhelming in terms of payroll gains, showed a healthy uptick in wage gains; in fact wages are growing at a notably faster pace than overall inflation. Consumer confidence indicators have also been robust; the latest University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index release also came out today and was well ahead of expectations. And the headline retail number was not unduly skewed by volatile sectors like automobiles or building materials; the core retail sales figure, which excludes autos, gas and building materials, was up 0.9 percent for the month against expectations of a 0.4 percent gain.
High Street Hangover
Brick-and-mortar retail outlets garner a great deal of focus during earnings season, mostly because they have long served as an easy go-to touchstone for retail sentiment. But high street retailers are not the force they once were. The multiline retail segment of the S&P 500 consumer discretionary index, which includes much-followed Macy’s, Kohl’s, Nordstrom and Target, accounts for only 4.3 percent of the total market value of all consumer discretionary segments. By comparison, the internet retail segment makes up 18 percent of the total consumer discretionary index – most of which can be ascribed to category-busting Amazon. That company’s record earnings release last week presaged the line item in today’s Commerce Department report showing that online retail sales grew by double digits on a year-on-year basis from last April.
As the economy continues to recover – and particularly as the brisk pace of job creation finally translates into the long-expected pickup in wage growth – it should be reasonable to expect retail spending to continue trending positive. In any given quarter the fruits of that pickup may be spread unevenly around the stock price performance of competitors in mainline, specialty and online retailing. Why is Gap down in the mid-twenties so far this year while Urban Outfitters, a peer in the specialty retail space, is enjoying a nice year to date return of just under 20 percent? Maybe there is something enduring about the latter’s move to further diversify and optimize its revenue mix, maybe not. Consumers may be fickle, asset markets even more so.
Over time, we expect the broad-based paradigm shift into online will put increased pressure on all business models, with a resulting competitive winnowing out among winners and losers. But the American consumer appears to be very much alive and, as far as we can see, inclined to keep spending in one form or another.
The Passover holiday starts this evening, and children in Jewish households around the world will be preparing for a traditional rite of passage in reciting the Four Questions to their elders. Investors watching the two month-long rally in equity markets may well have a question of their own: Why is this rally different from all other breakout rallies since the S&P 500 reached an all-time high of 2130 nearly one year ago, in May 2015? To put it a different way, is there anything plausible to suggest a sustained move above a fiercely resistant valuation ceiling? After the three year-plus multiple expansion rally topped out last year there have been five upside breakout attempts that have fallen short, including the current one thus far. The chart below illustrates this topping-out effect.
Tiptoeing Over the Low Bar
Much of the current focus is, rightfully, on first quarter earnings. There are two ways to interpret the results that have come in so far (about 27 percent of all S&P 500 companies have reported Q1 earnings as of today). The first is the expectations game: a number of firms thus far have managed to clear an exceedingly low expectations bar. Back in December, the consensus among analysts was that earnings per share growth would be more or less flat for the first quarter. Today, the same analysts expect Q1 EPS to decline by nine percent from their levels one year ago, when all is said and done. So all that a company has to do in order to give the market an “upside surprise” is to report earnings slightly higher than these sharply reduced expectations.
We have seen this reduced-expectations narrative play out among early reports in the financial and metals & mining sectors, two of the more beaten-down industry groups of late. For example the market takeaway from JPMorgan Chase, which led off earnings for the major banks last week, could be summed up thus: “bad, but could have been worse.” Bank stocks rallied sharply following the JPMorgan release, and were no less giddy a week later when Goldman Sachs reported a decline of 56 percent in net income from the period one year ago. If bad news is not awful news it must be good news, the convoluted logic seems to go.
Math Is Still Math
The second way to interpret Q1 earnings results is to ignore the Kabuki-like theatrics of the expectations game and point out that, however you want to frame the context, low earnings are still low earnings. Stocks are therefore still expensive. At the beginning of 2012 the ratio of the S&P 500 price index to average earnings per share for the last twelve months (LTM P/E) was 12.4 times. Investors would pay $12.40 for each dollar of average per share earnings. Over the subsequent three and a half years the LTM P/E ratio jumped from 12.4 times to 18.1 times – a “multiple expansion” rally where prices grow faster than earnings.
Today, despite two market corrections of more than 10 percent and the repeated failure to regain last year’s high water mark, the S&P 500 is as expensive as it was a year ago. It is more expensive than it ever was at the peak of the previous bull market of 2003-07. It is even dearer on a price-to-sales (P/S) basis; the current LTM P/S ratio of 1.8 times is the highest this ratio has been since the immediate aftermath of the late-1990s tech bubble.
Animal Spirits, to a Point
The fact that the market remains expensive does not necessarily preclude a breakout to the upside into new record high territory. Stranger things have happened; asset markets are the stomping grounds of John Maynard Keynes’ “animal spirits” far more than they are the purview of the fictitious rational actors of economics textbooks. The vague but often telling indicator of investor sentiment seems tilted to the upside. The question, though, is how sustainable a strong upside breakout would be in the absence of improvement in corporate earnings prospects.
We are unlikely to see the earnings math for Q1 make much of a compelling growth case. It remains to be seen whether some of the headwinds that have clipped sales and earnings prospects of late will abate further into the year – perhaps driven by a softer US dollar and a demand pickup in key consumer markets. Until then, we tend to believe that this rally is not much different from the four post-high rallies which preceded it, and that it would be a good idea to keep one’s animal spirits in check. Not in a defensive crouch, but in check.