Posts tagged Ecb
The current bull market in US equities, the pundits tell us, is the second-longest on record. That may sound impressive, given that domestic stock exchange records go back to the late 19th century. But it doesn’t even hold a candle to the accomplishments of the current bull market in bonds. The bond bull started in 1981, when the 10-year US Treasury yield peaked at 15.84 percent on September 30 of that year. It’s still going strong 36 years later, and it’s already one for the record books of the ages.
According to a recent staff working paper by the Bank of England, our bond bull is winning or placing in just about every key measurement category going back to the Genoese and Venetian financial economies of the European Middle Ages. Lowest risk-free benchmark rate ever – gold medal! The 10 year Treasury yield of 1.37 percent on July 5, 2016 is the lowest benchmark reference rate ever recorded (as in ever in the history of money, and people). The intensity of the current bull – measured by the compression from the highest to the lowest yield – is second only to the bond bull of 1441-81 (what, you don’t remember those crazy mid-1400s days in Renaissance Italy??). And if the bull can make it another four years it will grab the silver medal from that ’41 bull in the duration category, second only to the 1605-72 bond bull when Dutch merchant fleets ruled the waves and the bourses.
Tales from the Curve
But does our bull still have the legs, or is the tank running close to empty? That question will be on the minds of every portfolio manager starting the annual ritual of strategic asset allocation for the year ahead. Let’s first of all consider the shape of things, meaning the relative movements of intermediate/long and short term rates.
We’ve talked about this dynamic before, but the spread between the two year and ten year yields is as tight as it has been at any time since the “Greenspan conundrum” of the mid-2000s. That was the time period when the Fed raised rates (causing short term yields to trend up), while the 10-year and other intermediate/long rates stayed pat. It was a “conundrum” because the Fed expected their monetary policy actions would push up rates (albeit at varying degrees) across all maturities. As it turned out, though, the flattening/inverting yield curve meant the same thing it had meant in other environments: the onset of recession.
An investor armed with data of flattening yield curves past could reasonably be concerned about the trend today, with the 10-year bond bull intact while short term rates trend ever higher. However, it would be hard to put together any kind of compelling recession scenario for the near future given all the macro data at hand. The first reading of Q3 GDP, released this morning, comfortably exceeded expectations at 3.0 percent quarter-on-quarter (translating to a somewhat above-trend 2.3 percent year-on-year measure). Employment is healthy, consumer confidence remains perky and most measures of output (supply) and spending (demand) have been in the black for some time. Whatever the narrowing yield curve is telling us, the recession alarms are not flashing orange, let alone red.
Where Thou Goest…
So if not recession, then what? Leave aside for a moment the gentle undulations in the 10-year and focus on the robust rise in the 2-year. There’s no surprise here – the Fed has raised rates four times in the past 22 months, and short term rates have followed suit. Historically, the 2-year yield closely tracks Fed funds, as the chart below shows.
The upper end of the Fed funds target range is currently 1.25 percent, while the 2-year note currently yields 1.63 percent (as of Thursday’s close). What happens going forward depends largely on that one macro variable still tripping up the Fed in its policy deliberations: inflation. We have two more readings of the core PCE (the Fed’s key inflation gauge) before they deliberate at the December FOMC meeting. If the PCE has not moved up much from the current reading of 1.3 percent – even as GDP, employment and other variables continue trending strong – then the odds would be better than not the Fed will stay put. We would expect short term rates, at some point, to settle perhaps a bit down from current levels into renewed “lower for longer” expectations.
But there’s always the chance the Fed will raise rates anyway, simply because it wants to have a more “normalized” Fed funds environment and keep more powder dry for when the next downturn does, inevitably, happen. What then with the 10-year and the fabulous centuries-defying bond bull? There are plenty of factors out there with the potential to impact bond yields other than inflationary expectations. But as long as those expectations are muted – as they currently are – the likelihood of a sudden spike in intermediate rates remains an outlier scenario. It is not our default assumption as we look ahead to next year.
As to what kept the bond bull going for 40 years in the 1400s and for 67 years in the 17th century – well, we were not there, and there is only so much hard data one can tease out of the history books. What would keep it going for at least a little while longer today, though, would likely be a combination of benign growth in output and attendant restraint in wages and consumer prices. Until another obvious growth catalyst comes along to change this scenario, we’ll refrain from writing the obituary on the Great Bond Bull of (19)81.
In our commentary last week we made brief mention of the surprising strength of foreign currencies versus the US dollar in the year to date. This week served up yet another helping of greenback weakness, and it is worth a closer look. Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of the dollar’s stumble is how broad based it is, across national economies with very different characteristics. Consider the chart below, which shows the value of two developed market currencies (Eurozone and United Kingdom) and two emerging markets (Brazil and India) versus the dollar.
Brevity of the Trump Trade
As the above chart shows, all four currencies (and just about all others not pictured here) fell sharply against the dollar in the immediate aftermath of the US presidential election last November. Recall that asset markets broadly and quickly coalesced around the notion of a “reflation-infrastructure trade,” premised on the belief that swift implementation of deep tax cuts and a torrent of infrastructure spending would spark inflation in the US and send interest rates sharply higher. Even today, there is no shortage of lazy punditry in the financial media reflexively blurting “Trump trade” every time the stock market turns higher.
But the currency markets long ago signaled the non-existence of the reflation pony in the back yard. In most cases, the foreign currencies’ upward trajectory began late last year or in the first month of 2017. Despite some localized setbacks (e.g. the latest shoe to drop in Brazil’s ongoing political scandal back in May), that upward momentum has continued and gained strength. Even in Great Britain, the negative sentiment surrounding the woeful state of Brexit negotiations has been outweighed by even stronger negative sentiment against the dollar.
Many Stories, One Sentiment
So what is behind this singular sentiment that seems to pervade all continents and economies in various stages of growth or disarray? How long is it likely to last? One of the most popular themes, certainly for much of the summer, has been the perception of stronger growth in the Eurozone. ECB Chair Mario Draghi’s comments on the better than expected growth trend back in late June immediately catalyzed another leg up against the dollar, not just for the euro but for other, seemingly unrelated, currencies. A new consensus set in that the ECB would begin tapering its bond purchases sooner than planned, and Eurozone rates would trend up accordingly.
That’s fine as far as it goes, but there would appear to be more to the story. First of all, the Eurozone may be growing slightly faster than expected, but it is hardly going gangbusters. In fact, the real GDP growth rates of the US, Eurozone and Japan are curiously symbiotic. Inflation in all three regions remains well below the 2 percent target of their respective central banks. And then there is the curious case of the euro’s recent strength even while bond yields have once again subsided. The chart below shows the YTD performance of the euro and yields on 10-year benchmark Eurozone bonds.
The spike in intermediate bond yields that followed from Draghi’s June comments has almost completely subsided back to where it was before that. Part of this, we imagine, is due to a more muted ECB posture recently, both at the Jackson Hole summit a couple weeks ago and in comments following the bank’s policy meeting this past week. The falling yields also have to do with a slightly more cautious tone that has crept into risk asset markets as investors take stock of geopolitical disturbances and the disruptive effects of the hurricanes that continue to make headlines in the southern US and Caribbean islands.
None of this would indicate to us that going bearish on the dollar is some kind of “fat pitch” trade, there for the obvious taking. In a world of relatively low growth, the US remains an economic leader in many key sectors from technology to financial services. It would only take a couple readings of higher inflation to bring back expectations for a third rate hike by the Fed and renewed commitment to balance sheet reduction. Recoveries elsewhere in the world are likewise not immune from setbacks that could necessitate a redoubling of stimulus.
That said, national currencies do, to some degree over time, reflect general sentiment towards the prospects of the home nation. Right now, it would be fair to say that those views are mixed, and not necessarily trending in the right direction, as concerns the US. Whether that leads to further dollar weakness or not is by no means certain, but it is increasingly a trend that cannot be ignored.
Jackson Hole is, by all accounts, a lovely redoubt, high up in the Rocky Mountains of Wyoming. As has been the case every August since 1978, the monetary mandarins who set the agenda for the world’s central banks will dutifully traipse up to this hiking and skiing paradise next week for their annual economic symposium. The attention span of the global investment community will briefly train its attention on Jackson Hole, and not on account of the riveting topics on tap for keynote speeches and panel confabs. This year’s symposium title is “Fostering a Dynamic Global Economy,” an anodyne and, in this contentious day and age, somewhat wistful formulation. If nothing else, though, it at least rolls off the tongue more easily than last year’s unfortunate word salad of a lead line: “Designing Resilient Monetary Policy Frameworks for the Future.” Central banker says what?
Euron a Roll
No, investors’ interest in the proceedings will be strictly limited to whatever policy utterances may spring forth from the lips of bankers, none more so than European Central Bank chief Mario Draghi. A frisson of anticipation rippled in late June from Draghi’s musings about the stronger than expected pace of recovery in the Eurozone. These musings, not unlike Ben Bernanke’s “taper” kerfuffle of May 2013, sent bond markets and the euro into a tizzy as investors imagined the beginning of the end of Eurozone QE. The euro in particular went on a tear, as the chart below illustrates:
So much did the currency respond to fears of a more aggressive QE taper by the ECB that a strong euro has replaced a strong Eurozone as the central bank’s chief concern, as revealed by the most recent ECB minutes published this week. The euro’s strength puts regional companies at a competitive disadvantage for their exports, and complicates the ECB’s elusive target of 2 percent inflation. The characteristically cautious and incremental Draghi is thus likely to be on his guard to avoid any comments that could be interpreted by the market as hawkish policy leanings. Those tuning into the Jackson Hole proceedings may well come away with little more than the bland sentences peppered with bursts of arcane math that make up the majority of central bank speeches. More likely, investors will have to wait until the ECB’s next policy meetings in September and October for guidance on the timing of QE tapering.
The Smell of Fear
Concerns about the euro come at the same time as a smattering of long-dormant volatility comes back into risk asset markets. The CBOE VIX index has found a new home above 15 in recent days – still below the commonly accepted fear threshold of 20, but well above the sub-10 all-time lows it has plumbed for much of the past several months. Global stock indexes have experienced some attendant turbulence in the form of 1 percent-plus intraday pullbacks – fairly tame by historical norms but enough to re-ignite the chatter about the duration of this bull market, expensive valuations and all the rest.
It’s been awhile since shaky asset markets have tested central bankers’ nerves. Nor is there any clear indication that this late summer volatility will develop into anything more than a brief passing thunderstorm or two. But we have sufficient evidence from recent history that the policymakers do react to asset prices. They will likely be wary of pushing too hard for normalization policies (tapering on the part of the ECB, balance sheet reduction and further rate hikes for the Fed) if they sense that such moves will feed into already jittery capital markets.
Chances are that the only “hikes” on the agenda at Jackson Hole will be the kind involving nature’s beauty, not interest rates. We don’t expect much from Wyoming to be moving markets next week. But the central bankers still face a dilemma: how to proceed with the normalization they so want to accomplish when (a) market reactions could be troublesome, and (b) the urgency from a macroeconomic perspective is not clear and present. This will be one of the key contextual themes, we believe, heading into the fall.
It’s enough to make one sort of miss those crazy Octobers when goblins and other malevolent spirits wreak havoc on asset markets. Remember 2014? A weird flash crash in U.S. Treasury yields spooked investors already jittery about the Ebola virus making sensational front page headlines. The S&P 500 fell to just short of a technical correction in intraday trading before rebounding sharply as it became clear that there was no “there” there. A vigorous Santa rally carried the U.S. bellwether index up to a then-all time high right before the end of the year.
Mario Wins the Toss, Elects to Defer
At least that gave us something to write about. October 2016 thus far is a fine month for those who value calm and serenity, but for market scribes it is notably bereft of attention-grabbing headline events. Share trading volume this month on the New York Stock Exchange is somewhat below its average daily levels back in August. August, for heaven’s sake! It would appear that stock markets are catching the soporific vibes of the central banks they so assiduously follow, most recently the European Central Bank. On Thursday, ECB Chairman Mario Draghi summed up deliberations of the body’s governing council thus: We’ll talk again in six weeks. Ciao!
The ECB has a raft of unsolved problems, but this week was apparently not the time to provide any guidance as to their progress. Markets widely expect the bank will extend the current program of monthly €80 billion purchases beyond the current termination date of March 2017. However, the ECB’s rules on asset eligibility are at odds with the actual supply of viable paper in the market. Those rules probably will have to change in order to facilitate a meaningful extension of the program. Such change in turn will require agreement from the council’s German and other northern European hawks. Draghi’s deference to the December meeting likely stems from a lack of consensus today as to how to remedy asset eligibility rules to facilitate an extension of QE beyond March.
Earnings: Low Bar Well Cleared
Meanwhile, the third quarter earnings season is, rather predictably, serving up a nice dollop of upside surprises. With a bit more than 20 percent of S&P 500 companies reporting to date, both top-line revenues and mid-bottom line profits are mostly outperforming analysts’ expectations heading into the season. We expect that, when all is said and done, the average EPS growth number will be slightly positive as compared to the minus 2.6 percent consensus number projected a couple weeks back.
Yet, while upbeat earnings reports have helped a handful of individual names thus far, those low share volume figures and lackluster price drift for the S&P 500 overall indicate that, for the moment anyway, earnings season is not serving as much of a catalyst for a broad-based rally. Shares remain expensive by traditional valuation metrics, as we have frequently pointed out in these pages. Investors still have a more skeptical take on companies’ forward guidance projections, and headwinds including the dollar and weak foreign demand haven’t gone away. Until guidance announcements provide more evidence of a near-term future of double-digit EPS growth, a couple of quarters clearing a very low bar probably won’t do much to shake off the lethargy.
When Nothing Becomes Something
We still have six weeks to go before that next ECB conference, and even longer to wait for the white smoke to appear from the Eccles Building in Washington D.C. signifying the Fed’s next move. Six weeks is a long time for “nothing” – as reflected by sideways prices, low volatility and vanishingly thin trading – to continue. Some technical indicators including shorter term moving averages and 52-week highs vs. lows suggest some top-heaviness. While we don’t see any obvious lurking threats that could move from potential to kinetic (yes, including the U.S. election which, as we have pointed out before, is largely baked into current price levels), the current quiet does strike us as too quiet.
Often it is not one thing, but rather a random confluence of several things, which gives rise to sharp price reversals. The example we provided above of the October ’14 correction illustrates this well: a sudden data point anomaly (the Treasury yield flash crash), amidst a raft of vaguely disquieting, uncorrelated event headlines and a new wave of commodity price drawdowns, converged to trigger sell signals from trading program algorithms. More often than not, these turn out to be short-lived tempests. It’s been awhile since we had one, though.
Central banks in developed and (most) key emerging markets operate independently from their national governments. This independence is what endows monetary policymakers with the ability to act in times of economic strain while elected officials, hemmed in by unyielding partisan constraints, bicker haplessly on the sidelines. Increasingly, though, a taskmaster of an entirely different stripe has dominated the deliberations of monetary mandarins. Global asset markets were the unseen, but very much felt, presence in the room when the Fed convened this year to debate policy actions in January (China-sparked stock market correction), March (post-correction nerves) and June (Brexit). Asset sensitivity has been no less on the table for deliberations in Frankfurt, London and Tokyo.
The perceived reluctance of the Fed and other central banks to “provoke” risk asset markets into tantrums has drawn criticism from observers who see the bankers’ dependence on asset price movements as unhealthy and likely to end badly. Perhaps the most telling evidence of this phenomenon is in the chronic gap between the short to intermediate term interest rate projections of central bankers themselves and the market’s own take, from spot rates at the short end of the curve to Fed funds futures projections around upcoming FOMC outcomes. This week offered some evidence that the bankers may be trying to strike back. We’ll know more in the coming weeks about how much of this is posturing and how much is actual policy.
Super Mario Stands Pat
In the same week when the electronic form of Super Mario took the leap onto Apple’s new iPhone 7, real-life ECB chairman Mario Draghi chose, not only not to move, but not to say anything about not moving. The former was not a surprise; not many observers expected the ECB to announce an expansion of its current €80 billion per month bond purchasing program. But there was a general sense that Mr. “Whatever It Takes” might give a verbal nod in one or both of two ways: to extend the term of the current program from March to September of next year, and/or to indicate a widening of the eligible asset pool for ECB purchases. That second issue may be in any event unavoidable, given supply constraints on the amount of available debt under current eligibility rules.
Nothing in any way explicit, though, came from Draghi. Slumbering Eurozone bonds were suddenly jolted out of their summer reverie; the 10-year Bund yield is actually positive for the first time in many weeks. Flummoxed investors now wonder if the ECB’s silence portends something more profound; namely, an incipient declaration by central bankers that fiscal policymakers need to join the team, and meanwhile short-term asset prices be damned.
On Deck: Janet and Masahiro
Are bond yields overreacting to the ECB’s absence of verbal cues? It certainly would not be the first time. A less dramatic reading of Thursday’s meeting would simply be that Draghi’s stimulative inclinations haven’t changed at all, but that he still has work to do in bringing a likely reluctant Bundesbank on board with any expansion to the current framework, either for an extension or for a widening of the eligible asset pool. We imagine it likely that yields may fluctuate back and forth over the next ten days or so, driven more by tea leaves-reading than anything else. Both the Fed and the Bank of Japan meet in the first half of the week after next. We have made it clear in recent commentary that we see a vanishingly small chance that the Fed would actually raise rates in September, given the general absence of a need to do so and the charged political environment into which such a move would be made.
A string of recent musings by Fed officials, though, and most recently that of the normally dovish Eric Rosengren of the Boston Fed, has kept the Fed’s September meeting very much in the center of market chatter. Coming as it did on the heels of Draghi’s silence yesterday, asset markets are repricing expectations. In particular, Rosengren offered shades of Alan Greenspan circa 1996 with a reference to the dangers of “ebullient” asset markets in a climate of perpetually low rates. We should note, though, that while Rosengren got most of the headlines his was not the only view in circulation today; fellow FOMC voting member Dan Tarullo offered a more cautious observation, based on the same available empirical data informing our own recent opinions, that there is still enough slack in overall growth and price targets to not necessitate immediate action.
If the Fed does move on 9/21 – and we still do not think it will – we would see that as genuine evidence that a concerted declaration of independence is at hand. Our view would be bolstered further still if the currently very hard to read Masahiro Kuroda and his colleagues at the Bank of Japan signal at their meeting an intent to back off further forays into negative interest rate territory.
Fight or Flight?
More interesting still, though, would be the central bankers’ reaction to what could be a very nasty aftermath in those asset markets spurned by the bankers’ attempt at liberation from their clutches. How steely would the resolve of Janet, Mario and Masahiro be in the face of a violent spasm in equity and other asset markets? After all, it’s not like elected politicians and their fiscal policy executors are waiting in the wings, ready to swoop in with their own pragmatic solutions to our economic problems. Nor is there much evidence of the kind of robust organic economic growth that could get asset prices back on track after an initial swoon. Are central bankers really ready to cut the cord and see how markets survive in a world of diminished stimulus? All verbal (and non-verbal) Kabuki aside, we don’t imagine they will be inclined to tempt fate.